Self-diagnosis tool *interactive foot chart*

This Self-diagnosis online tool (SDOT) uses computerised algorithms to give you a list of possible foot and ankle conditions that may fit with your current complaint. It will show a list of conditions and not an actual, accurate diagnosis. If you are concerned please consult with your doctor.

Choose a location based on where your feet hurt

Midfoot
Heel
Achilles
Ankle front
Big toe
Lesser toes
Ankle Medial
Ankle lateral

Have you had previous surgery in the painful area?

Potential Symptoms

  1. Infection – At any moment in time following surgery, an infection can develop which may lead to increased pain, wound breakdown, redness or fluid discharge. This represents a complex situation that requires urgent attention.

  2. Metalwork related issues – The majority of the metalwork (plates, screws, nails, etc) used in previous surgeries is meant to stay in place permanently. Exceptions to that include misplaced or broken metalwork and irritation caused by the pieces of metalwork. 

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Are you Diabetic or suffer from Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Potential Symptoms

Flare ups or complications of Diabetes or Rheumatoid Arthritis may show up in many ways and forms, demanding more detailed investigation. Please contact us for further information.

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Have you suffered a recent trauma?

Potential Symptoms

Toe fracture - Following trauma, some of the bones in the big toe can break. These fractures are normally not displaced and are likely to heal on their own, but at times they may affect the joint in which case surgery is indicated to fix it appropriately.


Osteochondral lesions (OCL) - The big toe joints can suffer from osteochondral lesions which involve a small area of damaged cartilage in the lining that covers the joint. These can cause pain, clicking, locking or grinding in the joint and are common in footballers after continuous kicking.  


Turf toe - This injury takes its name from the turf fields where some sports take place as it is commonly seen in athletes. It basically represents a sprain of the big toe that results in pain at the ball of the foot. Depending on the grade and damage sustained by affected ligaments, the treatment varies from immobilisation in an orthotic shoe all the way to surgery.

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Is it hurting on the bottom, under the ball of the foot?

Potential Symptoms

Sesamoid conditions - Two small bones named sesamoids are located in the ball of the foot under the big toe. Due to their particular position and the stress they are subject to, they are susceptible to multiple conditions like inflammation (sesamoiditis), arthritis or fractures. These are common causes of resistant pain in runners.


Hallux Valgus (Bunion) - A very common deformity of the big toe that becomes tilted and a bony lump appears on the inside of the foot. Initially footwear modification and padding may be enough to control the pain. When these fail to control symptoms, surgery to straighten the toe can be performed.


Hallux Rigidus (Big Toe Arthritis) - When the big toe joint suffers from arthritis, the condition is also known as hallux rigidus since it commonly leads to a stiff or rigid toe that causes pain, swelling and difficulty with walking. The severity of the arthritis is what will dictate the treatment, ranging from insoles to surgery.


Osteochondral lesions (OCL) - The big toe joints can suffer from osteochondral lesions which involve a small area of damaged cartilage in the lining that covers the joint. These can cause pain, clicking, locking or grinding in the joint and are commonly seen in footballers after continuous kicking.  


Turf toe - This injury takes its name from the turf fields where some sports take place as it is commonly seen in athletes. It basically represents a sprain of the big toe that results in pain at the ball of the foot. Depending on the grade and damage sustained by affected ligaments, the treatment varies from immobilisation in an orthotic shoe all the way to surgery.


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Is the nail affected?

Potential Symptoms

Ingrown toenail - The sides of the toenail can curve down and grow into the toe, causing redness and pain that can progress to an infection. It is advised not to pick at or cut your toenail, as well as the use of wide, comfortable shoes. When infected, antibiotics may be necessary but for a definitive solution the ends of the nail and nail bed need to be surgically trimmed and reshaped. 


Onychomicosis - This is the medical term used to describe a fungal infection of the toe nail. These are trivial and very common infections, developing when feet are generally warm and damp.  When colonised, the nail can become thickened, detached and / or discoloured. Long lasting treatments with creams or antifungal tablets are commonly needed to fully clear the infection. 

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Is the toe bent?

Potential Symptoms

Hallux Valgus (Bunion) - A very common deformity of the big toe that becomes tilted and a bony lump appears on the inside of the foot. Initially footwear modification and padding may be enough to control the pain. When these fail to control symptoms, surgery to straighten the toe can be performed.

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None of the above

Potential Symptoms

Hallux Rigidus (Big Toe Arthritis) - When the big toe joint suffers from arthritis, the condition is also known as hallux rigidus since it commonly leads to a stiff or rigid toe that causes pain, swelling and difficulty with walking. The severity of the arthritis is what will dictate the treatment, ranging from insoles to surgery.


Osteochondral lesions (OCL) - The big toe joints can suffer from osteochondral lesions which involve a small area of damaged cartilage in the lining that covers the joint. These can cause pain, clicking, locking or grinding in the joint and are common in footballers after continuous kicking.  


Tendinitis - This represents a very common overuse injury where tendons become inflamed and even torn. Many different tendons run along the foot and ankle providing motion to the toes and feet. Treatment is generally based on a structured physiotherapy regime although some severe cases may necessitate surgery to fully recover.


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Have you suffered a recent trauma?

Potential Symptoms

Toe fracture - Fractures can occur in any of the bones (phalanxs) of the toe. Treatment will depend on the type and displacement of the fracture, some requiring splinting whereas others may benefit from surgery to fix the broken bones.


Toe Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - Similarly to the ankle or the big toe, the lesser toes can also suffer from osteochondral lesions which involve a small area of damaged cartilage in the lining that covers the joint. These can cause pain, clicking, locking or grinding in the joint and are common in footballers and ballet dancers.  

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Is it hurting underneath, over the ball of the foot?

Potential Symptoms

Freiberg’s disease – This is a rare disease caused by a failure of the blood supply to reach the end of the metatarsal bone. It is most commonly seen in young female dancers with symptoms including pain, stiffness and swelling around the toe or ball of the foot. Treatment is based on offloading the affected toe by using insoles. On occasion surgery may be required to clean the joint up or realign the bone.


Morton’s neuroma – This refers to an inflamed nerve that runs between the toes and when pinched by the neighbouring bones causes pain when walking, usually described as if “walking on a pebble”. Depending on the investigations a surgical or non-surgical treatment is warranted. 


Metatarsalgia – A term used to describe pain under the ball of the foot. There are many reasons accounting for this type of pain that frequently involve excessive stress in the area or tight shoes. It can also be secondary to a bunion or irritated joints and nerves. The treatment will seek to address the aggravating factors once the underlying cause is diagnosed. Most cases benefit from insoles and physiotherapy with only a minority of the cases requiring surgery. 


Plantar plate tear – The plantar plate is a strong ligament that connects the toes with the rest of the foot. It can become weak or even tear due to continued high pressure or a sudden injury. The toe may experience a progressive deformity and a hammer toe can develop in addition to the pain experienced under the ball of the foot. Treatment consists initially of insoles, physiotherapy and relative rest. Severe cases may benefit from surgery to repair the torn plantar plate.  

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Is the nail affected?

Potential Symptoms

Onychomicosis - This is the medical term used to describe a fungal infection of the toe nail. These are trivial and very common infections, developing when feet are generally warm and damp.  When colonised, the nail can become thickened, detached and / or discoloured. Long lasting treatments with creams or antifungal tablets are commonly needed to fully clear the infection. 


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Is the toe bent?

Potential Symptoms

Hammer toe, claw toe, mallet toe - The lesser toes can suffer from a variety of deformities that can be painful and lead to skin corns, callosities and bony lumps. Some of the most common deformities include hammer toes, claw toes or mallet toes. Your surgeon will be able to determine what type of deformity is present and what is the recommended treatment. Acommodative shoes and orthotics will be the first line of treatment, leaving surgery for resistant cases.

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Is it the pinky toe?

Potential Symptoms

Bunionette - This is the equivalent of a bunion commonly seen in the big toe but here it shows in the little toe, also known as "tailor's bunion". Patients develop a bony bump that causes pain when rubbing on shoes. There are non-surgical treatments that are intended to improve patient's comfort in their own footwear, or keyhole/MIS surgery to shave off the bony lump.

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None of the above

Potential Symptoms

Freiberg’s disease – This is a rare disease caused by a failure of the blood supply to reach the end of the metatarsal bone. It is most commonly seen in young female dancers with symptoms including pain, stiffness and swelling around the toe or ball of the foot. Treatment is based on offloading the affected toe by using insoles. On occasion surgery may be required to clean the joint up or realign the bone.


Toe Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - Similarly to the ankle or the big toe, the lesser toes can also suffer from osteochondral lesions which involve a small area of damaged cartilage in the lining that covers the joint. These can cause pain, clicking, locking or grinding in the joint and are common in footballers and ballet dancers.  


Tendinitis – It involves the inflammation or degeneration of a tendon. Multiple tendons run along the foot which can become damaged or even torn and ruptured due to overuse. Most of these will improve with a course of physiotherapy, others may require surgery depending on the severity of the lesion.

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Have you suffered a recent trauma?

Potential Symptoms

Lisfranc Injury - There is a cornerstone joint in the midfoot which is named the Lisfranc joint after a French surgeon who described its fracture. Injuries to this joint are seen as a result of a twisting or crushing trauma to the foot. The ligaments may suffer a sprain or the bones may break which entails different levels of severity. Given the importance in arch support and contribution of the Lisfranc joint to adequate gait, even in cases of ligament-only damage, surgical treatment may be recommended and so it is crucial that this injury is not missed initially.  


Metatarsal fracture - There are five metatarsal bones in the midfoot following on from each of the toes. They can break at different locations along the length of the bone and more than one metatarsal can be involved after severe injuries. Pain and swelling are expected and the treatment will depend on the location and type of fracture. The majority of these injuries are treated by offloading the foot in a special walking boot or shoe.


Base of the fifth metatarsal fracture - This particular fracture encountered over the outside of the midfoot is common after ankle or foot twisting injuries. The type of fracture will dictate the treatment which will largely consist of a period of protected offloading in a walking boot or shoe.  

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Can you notice a lump?

Potential Symptoms

Ganglion -  A ganglion is a sac filled with fluid stemming from a nearby joint or tendon. These are felt as a soft lump and can rub on shoes. They are benign and may change in size relative to the amount of fluid. Depending on the symptoms they can be left alone or monitored, drained or surgically removed. 


Osteoarthritis of the midfoot - There are multiple joints in the foot that can be affected by osteoarthritis. This condition entails the wear and tear of the joint that loses its protective cartilage lining. This can cause variable amounts of pain and swelling, featuring a hard lump in some instances. The foot will benefit from midfoot support with insoles and in severe stages surgery may be advised. 

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Is the arch of the foot flat or very high?

Potential Symptoms

Flat foot (Planus) -  The arch at the inner side of the foot is a normal feature when standing. In some cases the arch can flatten and as a consequence the foot tendons and joints may suffer. Patients commonly complain of pain and swelling around the ankle and foot. Arch support and physiotherapy are the initial steps in treatment.


Hollow foot (Cavus) -  Opposite to a flat foot, the arch can be over developed and its height appears increased. In some cases, this is very subtle but it may put higher strain on tendons and create a tendency to sustaining frequent twisting injuries or rolling over their ankles. Depending on the areas affected, treatment may vary from physiotherapy to surgery.

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None of the above

Potential Symptoms

Stress fracture - These are the result of excessive or repetitive forces applied onto a particular bone. Activities such as running can cause microscopic cracks that cause pain and difficulty to bear weight unless appropriate treatment is implemented. Any foot bone is susceptible to develop a stress fracture and treatment will depend on the specific bone.


Osteoarthritis of the midfoot - There are multiple joints in the foot that can be affected by osteoarthritis. This condition entails the wear and tear of the joint that loses its protective cartilage lining. This can cause variable amounts of pain and swelling. The foot will benefit from midfoot support with insoles and in severe stages surgery may be advised. 

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Have you suffered a recent trauma?

Potential Symptoms

Calcaneal fracture - The heel bone or calcaneum is the largest in the foot and can break after a fall from significant height or a heavy strike on the heel. These fractures will require further investigation with CT scans to determine their shape and establish a treatment plan. This represents a serious injury that often requires surgery and a long recovery. 


Achilles tendon rupture - The Achilles tendon can snap in an injury that is frequently seen in sportsmen or women. Following a sudden onset of pain at the back of the ankle the leg becomes weak and tiptoeing is difficult. Urgent attention is required as missed or misdiagnosed injuries can be very debilitating.


Gastrocnemius (calf muscle) tear - A gastrocnemius tear, also known as calf strain, is a muscle tear originated as a consequence of excessive stretch sustained during physical activity. Expect various degrees of pain, redness, bruising and weakness depending on the severity of the injury. They are commonly treated with relative rest to give the muscle time to heal by itself. Surgery is rarely needed but physiotherapy is beneficial at the right time.

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Can you notice a lump?

Potential Symptoms

Haglund's deformity - It is a bony enlargement localised at the back of the heel, in close contact with the Achilles tendon. It can cause irritation to the tendon and difficulty with footwear. A number of non-surgical strategies can be used to improve the pain and discomfort. When the lump is very large it may require surgery to remove it.


Tendinitis - The Achilles or other smaller tendons in the region can be affected by tendinitis. This involves the inflammation or degeneration of a tendon. Multiple tendons run along the foot which can become damaged or even torn and ruptured due to overuse. Most of them will improve with a course of physiotherapy, others may require surgery depending on the severity of the lesion.


Achilles tendon rupture - The Achilles tendon can snap in an injury that is frequently seen in sportsmen or women. Following a sudden onset of pain at the back of the ankle the leg becomes weak and tiptoeing is difficult. Urgent attention is required as missed or misdiagnosed injuries can be very debilitating.


Gastrocnemius (calf muscle) tear - A gastrocnemius tear, also known as calf strain, is a muscle tear originated as a consequence of excessive stretch sustained during physical activity. Expect various degrees of pain, redness, bruising and weakness depending on the severity of the injury. They are commonly treated with relative rest to give the muscle time to heal by itself. Surgery is rarely needed but physiotherapy is beneficial at the right time.

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None of the above

Potential Symptoms

Posterior ankle impingement - This condition is frequently encountered in footballers as they constantly kick the ball, and ballet dancers as they regularly perform "en-point" stands. An overgrowth or swelling of ligaments at the back of the ankle can restrict the movement as they get pinched by the bones of the shin and heel. It can also be caused by an additional small bone called "os trigonum".  Treatment will depend on the severity of symptoms involving either physiotherapy or surgery.


Osteoarthritis (of the Ankle or Subtalar joints) - This occurs when the protective cartilage lining covering the end of your joint suffers wear and tear, causing pain, swelling and stiffness. Possible causes of osteoarthritis include joint fractures, overuse, genetics or ageing. Any joint in the body and in the foot can be affected by osteoarthritis, being the ankle and the subtalar - the joint beneath the ankle - the largest ones in the region.


Tendinitis - A number of tendons run along the foot and they are responsible for moving the toes and the foot itself. At the back of the ankle the Achilles is the largest one but many others are also in its proximity. When overused they can become inflamed, torn or ruptured. Most of them will improve with a course of physiotherapy, others may require surgery depending on the severity of the lesion.

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Have you suffered a recent trauma?

Potential Symptoms

Ankle fracture - A fracture occurs when the bones in the ankle joint sustain a break as a consequence of trauma. Pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness and difficulty to bear weight are all common after ankle fractures although not always present. Urgent attention is needed to assess the severity and the need for surgery or cast.


Ankle sprain -  Sprains are common injuries affecting the ligaments and muscles. Ligaments hold the bones forming the ankle joint together and can be damaged after a twisting injury. Patients experience acute pain or weakness and the ankle appears swollen, bruised and tender. The majority are benign injuries that will heal with the appropriate physiotherapy but others may require minor surgery. Poorly treated ankle sprains will set the path for frequent injuries in the future, so they should not be overlooked.


Talus fracture -  The talus is the bone that connects the foot with the shin bone. Fractures can occur following a severe impact and instant swelling develops with pain experienced when moving the ankle or attempting to bear weight. A series of x-rays and CT scans are important to visualize the exact anatomy of the fracture. Unless the fracture is minor and only a small piece of bone is chipped off, talus fractures are likely to require surgery to restore the shape of this important bone.


Ankle Instability - This occurs in rare cases where torn ligaments fail to heal and the ankle “gives way” constantly. It normally causes pain and swelling of varying intensity. The majority of patients will be able to stabilise the ankle with specific physiotherapy regimes achieving full recovery and keeping the symptoms under control. If the ligaments are severely damaged the instability will persist despite physiotherapy and surgical ligament repair should be considered.


Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - This involves a small defect in the cartilage lining that covers the ankle joint. Because of that, one can feel pain, clicking, locking, grinding and giving way, as the smooth mechanism of joint motion is affected. Mild lesions will likely heal with physiotherapy while more severe ones may necessitate keyhole surgery.

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Do you roll over your ankle frequently?

Potential Symptoms

Ankle Instability - This occurs in rare cases where torn ligaments fail to heal and the ankle “gives way” constantly. It normally causes pain and swelling of varying intensity. The majority of patients will be able to stabilise the ankle with specific physiotherapy regimes achieving full recovery and keeping the symptoms under control. If the ligaments are severely damaged the instability will persist despite physiotherapy and surgical ligament repair should be considered.


Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - This involves a small defect in the cartilage lining that covers the ankle joint. Because of that, one can feel pain, clicking, locking, grinding and giving way, as the smooth mechanism of joint motion is affected. Mild lesions will likely heal with physiotherapy while more severe ones may necessitate keyhole surgery.


Footballer's ankle (anterior impingement) - This occurs when bone spurs at the front of the ankle pinch the soft tissue resulting in pain and decreased movement. It is most common in athletes who repeatedly perform kicking such as footballers. Treatment may involve keyhole surgery to remove the bone spur or scar tissue.


Ankle fracture - A fracture occurs when the bones in the ankle joint sustain a break as a consequence of trauma. Pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness and difficulty to bear weight are all common after ankle fractures although not always present. Urgent attention is needed to assess the severity and the need for surgery or cast.


Ankle sprain -  Sprains are common injuries affecting the ligaments and muscles. Ligaments hold the bones forming the ankle joint together and can be damaged after a twisting injury. Patients experience acute pain or weakness and the ankle appears swollen, bruised and tender. The majority are benign injuries that will heal with the appropriate physiotherapy but others may require minor surgery. Poorly treated ankle sprains will set the path for frequent injuries in the future, so they should not be overlooked.

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None of the above

Potential Symptoms

Tibialis Posterior Tendinitis - This important tendon that runs behind the ankle and onto the midfoot can become damaged or irritated easily as it turns a sharp corner around one of the ankle bones. Its function is to maintain the arch of the foot and when damaged the arch can flatten and the foot collapse. Patients commonly complain of pain and swelling around the ankle and foot. The first line of treatment will involve physiotherapy with other strategies that can enhance the tendon's health. In advanced cases surgery may be indicated.


Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - This involves a small defect in the cartilage lining that covers the ankle joint. Because of that, one can feel pain, clicking, locking, grinding and giving way, as the smooth mechanism of joint motion is affected. Mild lesions will likely heal with physiotherapy while more severe ones may necessitate keyhole surgery.


Footballer's ankle (anterior impingement) - This occurs when bone spurs at the front of the ankle pinch the soft tissue resulting in pain and decreased movement. It is most common in athletes who repeatedly perform kicking such as footballers. Treatment may involve keyhole surgery to remove the bone spur or scar tissue.


Osteoarthritis (of the Ankle or Talonavicular joint) -  This occurs when the protective lining of cartilage covering the end of your joint suffers wear and tear, causing pain, swelling and stiffness. Possible causes of osteoarthritis include joint injury, overuse, genetics or ageing. Any joint in the body and in the foot can be affected by osteoarthritis.

Book your appointment with us

*Video consultation* also available
Also by phone on 0207 341 5010

Have you suffered a recent trauma?

Potential Symptoms

Ankle fracture - A fracture occurs when the bones in the ankle joint sustain a break as a consequence of trauma. Pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness and difficulty to bear weight are all common after ankle fractures although not always present. Urgent attention is needed to assess the severity and the need for surgery or cast.


Ankle sprain -  Sprains are common injuries affecting the ligaments and muscles. Ligaments hold the bones forming the ankle joint together and can be damaged after a twisting injury. Patients experience acute pain or weakness and the ankle appears swollen, bruised and tender. The majority are benign injuries that will heal with the appropriate physiotherapy but others may require minor surgery. Poorly treated ankle sprains will set the path for frequent injuries in the future, so they should not be overlooked.


Talus fracture -  The talus is the bone that connects the foot with the shin bone. Fractures can occur following a severe impact and instant swelling develops with pain experienced when moving the ankle or attempting to bear weight. A series of x-rays and CT scans are important to visualize the exact anatomy of the fracture. Unless the fracture is minor and only a small piece of bone is chipped off, talus fractures are likely to require surgery to restore the shape of this important bone.


Ankle Instability - This occurs in rare cases where torn ligaments fail to heal and the ankle “gives way” constantly. It normally causes pain and swelling of varying intensity. The majority of patients will be able to stabilise the ankle with specific physiotherapy regimes achieving full recovery and keeping the symptoms under control. If the ligaments are severely damaged the instability will persist despite physiotherapy and surgical ligament repair should be considered.


Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - This involves a small defect in the cartilage lining that covers the ankle joint. Because of that, one can feel pain, clicking, locking, grinding and giving way, as the smooth mechanism of joint motion is affected. Mild lesions will likely heal with physiotherapy while more severe ones may necessitate keyhole surgery.


Snowboarders: This is a type of talus fracture that is more commonly seen in snowboarders but also in the general population after a twisting injury to the ankle. It may resemble an ankle sprain but the implications are far-reaching unless diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. The majority of these fractures will benefit from early surgery to obtain the best outcome.


Peroneal conditions: There are two peroneal tendons that run along the side of the ankle and foot. They can cause a number of conditions including tendinitis (pain and swelling), tears or dislocation (constantly moving in and out of their path). Each of these conditions will require specific treatments ranging from physiotherapy to surgery.

Book your appointment with us

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Also by phone on 0207 341 5010

Do you roll over your ankle frequently?

Potential Symptoms

Ankle Instability - This occurs in rare cases where torn ligaments fail to heal and the ankle “gives way” constantly. It normally causes pain and swelling of varying intensity. The majority of patients will be able to stabilise the ankle with specific physiotherapy regimes achieving full recovery and keeping the symptoms under control. If the ligaments are severely damaged the instability will persist despite physiotherapy and surgical ligament repair should be considered.


Peroneal conditions: There are two peroneal tendons that run along the side of the ankle and foot. They can cause a number of conditions including tendinitis (pain and swelling), tears or dislocation (constantly moving in and out of their path). Each of these conditions will require specific treatments ranging from physiotherapy to surgery.


Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - This involves a small defect in the cartilage lining that covers the ankle joint. Because of that, one can feel pain, clicking, locking, grinding and giving way, as the smooth mechanism of joint motion is affected. Mild lesions will likely heal with physiotherapy while more severe ones may necessitate keyhole surgery.


Footballer's ankle (anterior impingement) - This occurs when bone spurs at the front of the ankle pinch the soft tissue resulting in pain and decreased movement. It is most common in athletes who repeatedly perform kicking such as footballers. Treatment may involve keyhole surgery to remove the bone spur or scar tissue.


Ankle fracture - A fracture occurs when the bones in the ankle joint sustain a break as a consequence of trauma. Pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness and difficulty to bear weight are all common after ankle fractures although not always present. Urgent attention is needed to assess the severity and the need for surgery or cast.


Ankle sprain -  Sprains are common injuries affecting the ligaments and muscles. Ligaments hold the bones forming the ankle joint together and can be damaged after a twisting injury. Patients experience acute pain or weakness and the ankle appears swollen, bruised and tender. The majority are benign injuries that will heal with the appropriate physiotherapy but others may require minor surgery. Poorly treated ankle sprains will set the path for frequent injuries in the future, so they should not be overlooked.

Book your appointment with us

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Also by phone on 0207 341 5010

None of the above

Potential Symptoms

Sinus Tarsi Syndrome -  This condition is defined by persistent pain in the sinus tarsi region which is localised under the bulging bone on the outside of the ankle. It can also present with a feeling of instability and poor balance on uneven surfaces which is normally due to some ligamentous strain and inflammation following previous ankle sprains. Treatment involves insoles, physiotherapy and potential injections, with surgery being rarely indicated.


Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - This involves a small defect in the cartilage lining that covers the ankle joint. Because of that, one can feel pain, clicking, locking, grinding and giving way, as the smooth mechanism of joint motion is affected. Mild lesions will likely heal with physiotherapy while more severe ones may necessitate keyhole surgery.


Footballer's ankle (anterior impingement) - This occurs when bone spurs at the front of the ankle pinch the soft tissue resulting in pain and decreased movement. It is most common in athletes who repeatedly perform kicking such as footballers. Treatment may involve keyhole surgery to remove the bone spur or scar tissue.


Osteoarthritis (of the Ankle or Subtalar joints) - This occurs when the protective cartilage lining covering the end of your joint suffers wear and tear, causing pain, swelling and stiffness. Possible causes of osteoarthritis include joint fractures, overuse, genetics or ageing. Any joint in the body and in the foot can be affected by osteoarthritis, being the ankle and the subtalar - the joint beneath the ankle - the largest ones in the region.


Peroneal conditions: There are two peroneal tendons that run along the side of the ankle and foot. They can cause a number of conditions including tendinitis (pain and swelling), tears or dislocation (constantly moving in and out of their path). Each of these conditions will require specific treatments ranging from physiotherapy to surgery.

Book your appointment with us

*Video consultation* also available
Also by phone on 0207 341 5010

Have you suffered a recent trauma?

Potential Symptoms

Ankle fracture - A fracture occurs when the bones in the ankle joint sustain a break as a consequence of trauma. Pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness and difficulty to bear weight are all common after ankle fractures although not always present. Urgent attention is needed to assess the severity and the need for surgery or cast.


Talus fracture -  The talus is the bone that connects the foot with the shin bone. Fractures can occur following a severe impact and instant swelling develops with pain experienced when moving the ankle or attempting to bear weight. A series of x-rays and CT scans are important to visualize the exact anatomy of the fracture. Unless the fracture is minor and only a small piece of bone is chipped off, talus fractures are likely to require surgery to restore the shape of this important bone.


Ankle Instability - This occurs in rare cases where torn ligaments fail to heal and the ankle “gives way” constantly. It normally causes pain and swelling of varying intensity. The majority of patients will be able to stabilise the ankle with specific physiotherapy regimes achieving full recovery and keeping the symptoms under control. If the ligaments are severely damaged the instability will persist despite physiotherapy and surgical ligament repair should be considered.


Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - This involves a small defect in the cartilage lining that covers the ankle joint. Because of that, one can feel pain, clicking, locking, grinding and giving way, as the smooth mechanism of joint motion is affected. Mild lesions will likely heal with physiotherapy while more severe ones may necessitate keyhole surgery.


Navicular fracture - The navicular is a crucial bone located at the front of the ankle which provides significant support and motion to the foot. Fractures can occur following significant trauma and given its importance to ankle function they normally require surgery.

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Also by phone on 0207 341 5010

Do you roll over your ankle frequently?

Potential Symptoms

Ankle Instability - This occurs in rare cases where torn ligaments fail to heal and the ankle “gives way” constantly. It normally causes pain and swelling of varying intensity. The majority of patients will be able to stabilise the ankle with specific physiotherapy regimes achieving full recovery and keeping the symptoms under control. If the ligaments are severely damaged the instability will persist despite physiotherapy and surgical ligament repair should be considered.


Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - This involves a small defect in the cartilage lining that covers the ankle joint. Because of that, one can feel pain, clicking, locking, grinding and giving way, as the smooth mechanism of joint motion is affected. Mild lesions will likely heal with physiotherapy while more severe ones may necessitate keyhole surgery.


Footballer's ankle (anterior impingement) - This occurs when bone spurs at the front of the ankle pinch the soft tissue resulting in pain and decreased movement. It is most common in athletes who repeatedly perform kicking such as footballers. Treatment may involve keyhole surgery to remove the bone spur or scar tissue.


Osteoarthritis (of the Ankle or Talonavicular joint) -  This occurs when the protective lining of cartilage covering the end of your joint suffers wear and tear, causing pain, swelling and stiffness. Possible causes of osteoarthritis include joint injury, overuse, genetics or ageing. Any joint in the body and in the foot can be affected by osteoarthritis.


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None of the above

Potential Symptoms

Osteoarthritis (of the Ankle or Talonavicular joint) -  This occurs when the protective lining of cartilage covering the end of your joint suffers wear and tear, causing pain, swelling and stiffness. Possible causes of osteoarthritis include joint injury, overuse, genetics or ageing. Any joint in the body and in the foot can be affected by osteoarthritis.


Osteochondral lesion (OCL) - This involves a small defect in the cartilage lining that covers the ankle joint. Because of that, one can feel pain, clicking, locking, grinding and giving way, as the smooth mechanism of joint motion is affected. Mild lesions will likely heal with physiotherapy while more severe ones may necessitate keyhole surgery.


Footballer's ankle (anterior impingement) - This occurs when bone spurs at the front of the ankle pinch the soft tissue resulting in pain and decreased movement. It is most common in athletes who repeatedly perform kicking such as footballers. Treatment may involve keyhole surgery to remove the bone spur or scar tissue.


Navicular stress fracture - These are the result of excessive or repetitive forces applied onto the navicular bone. Activities such as running or football can cause microscopic cracks that cause pain and difficulty to bear weight unless appropriate treatment is implemented. This particular bone may not heal by offloading and surgical fixation may be required to treat the navicular stress fracture.

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Have you suffered a recent trauma?

Potential Symptoms

Calcaneal fracture - The heel bone or calcaneum is the largest in the foot and can break after a fall from significant height or a heavy strike on the heel. These fractures will require further investigation with CT scans to determine their shape and establish a treatment plan. This represents a serious injury that often requires surgery and a long recovery. 


Plantar fascia tear – The plantar fascia is a strong ligament that runs along the sole of the foot and attaches onto the heel bone. A sudden effort when jumping or running can precipitate a tear of the fascia that presents with pain and difficulty walking. It can also develop as a complication of plantar fasciitis. The vast majority of plantar plate tears will respond well to conservative care based on relative rest, insoles and physiotherapy. 

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Can you notice a lump?

Potential Symptoms

Tarsal tunnel syndrome – This condition is caused by the compression of the nerve and tendons running through this tight “tunnel” at the back of the foot. Given that many structures travel through the tarsal tunnel, the symptoms experienced may vary and include burning sensation, shooting pain, pins and needles or numbness. It is important to understand the underlying cause affecting each case and treatment may include physiotherapy, injections or surgery in selected cases. 


Calcaneal fracture - The heel bone or calcaneum is the largest in the foot and can break after a fall from significant height or a heavy strike on the heel. These fractures will require further investigation with CT scans to determine their shape and establish a treatment plan. This represents a serious injury that often requires surgery and a long recovery. 


Calcaneal stress fracture - A stress fracture is an overuse injury that does not require any significant trauma to the foot to develop a hairline crack into the heel bone (or calcaneus). They are common in long distance runners or athletes and cause gradually worsening pain in and around the heel. The treatment is based on resting from sporting activities and offloading in a walker boot. A specific physiotherapy programme will follow.


Osteoarthritis (of the Subtalar joint) - This occurs when the protective lining of cartilage covering the end of your joint suffers wear and tear, causing pain, swelling and stiffness. Possible causes of osteoarthritis include joint fractures, overuse, genetics or ageing. The subtalar joint lies just beneath the ankle and is important for movements of the foot from side to side.

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Do you have pins & needles or numbness in the foot?

Potential Symptoms

Tarsal tunnel syndrome – This condition is caused by the compression of the nerve and tendons running through this tight “tunnel” at the back of the foot. Given that many structures travel through the tarsal tunnel, the symptoms experienced may vary and include burning sensation, shooting pain, pins and needles or numbness. It is important to understand the underlying cause affecting each case and treatment may include physiotherapy, injections or surgery in selected cases. 

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Also by phone on 0207 341 5010

Is the arch of the foot flat or very high?

Potential Symptoms

Planus - The arch at the inner side of the foot is a normal feature when standing. In some cases the arch can flatten and as a consequence the foot tendons and joints may suffer. Patients commonly complain of pain and swelling around the ankle and foot.


Cavus - Opposite to a flat foot, the arch can be over developed and its height be increased. In some cases this is very subtle but it may put higher strain on tendons and make patients prone to sustaining frequent twisting injuries or rolling over their ankles.

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None of the above

Potential Symptoms

Plantar Fasciitis – One of the most common causes of heel pain involves a disorder of the plantar fascia, a strong ligament that runs along the sole of the foot. As a consequence, it may become inflamed and irritable causing limiting pain that is felt whenever the heel strikes the ground. Treatment is a combination of non-surgical strategies that will tackle the pain. Surgery is rarely performed to offload the tension exerted by the calf muscles onto the plantar fascia.


Plantar fascia tear – The plantar fascia is a strong ligament that runs along the sole of the foot and attaches onto the heel bone. A sudden effort when jumping or running can precipitate a tear of the fascia that presents with pain and difficulty walking. It can also develop as a complication of plantar fasciitis. The vast majority of plantar plate tears will respond well to conservative care based on relative rest, insoles and physiotherapy. 


Calcaneal stress fracture - A stress fracture is an overuse injury that does not require any significant trauma to the foot to develop a hairline crack into the heel bone (or calcaneus). They are common in long distance runners or athletes and cause gradually worsening pain in and around the heel. The treatment is based on resting from sporting activities and offloading in a walker boot. A specific physiotherapy programme will follow.


Tarsal tunnel syndrome – This condition is caused by the compression of the nerve and tendons running through this tight “tunnel” at the back of the foot. Given that many structures travel through the tarsal tunnel, the symptoms experienced may vary and include burning sensation, shooting pain, pins and needles or numbness. It is important to understand the underlying cause affecting each case and treatment may include physiotherapy, injections or surgery in selected cases. 


Osteoarthritis (of the Subtalar joint) - This occurs when the protective lining of cartilage covering the end of your joint suffers wear and tear, causing pain, swelling and stiffness. Possible causes of osteoarthritis include joint fractures, overuse, genetics or ageing. The subtalar joint lies just beneath the ankle and is important for movements of the foot from side to side.



Book your appointment with us

*Video consultation* also available
Also by phone on 0207 341 5010

*Disclaimer - The self-diagnosis online tool (SDOT) and any content accessed through this website is for informational purposes only, and is not intended to constitute professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. shall be in no way responsible for your use of the SDOT, or any information that you obtain from this website. You acknowledge that when using SDOT you do so at your own choice and in agreement with this disclaimer. Do not ignore or delay obtaining professional medical advice because of information accessed through SDOT. This tool is NOT a substitute for a doctor’s or foot specialist’s care. Be sure to consult with your doctor or foot specialist if you have pain, discomfort, or any other symptoms. Seek immediate medical assistance or call your doctor for all medical emergencies. By using SDOT you agree to the terms and conditions.